How Medieval Bridges Were Built—An Animation

Europe Renaissance

Building a bridge over water is a daunting task, and despite the many technological progresses, the basics have remain unchanged since ancient times. First a cofferdam is constructed on the riverbed and the water inside this enclosed structure is pumped out, exposing the muddy button. Upon this ground the piers of the bridge are erected.

Photo: Rasto SK/Shutterstock.com

During middle ages, the cofferdam was built using several rows of logs driven into the mud. This was made watertight using mud and reinforced with sand. Water was then pumped out from the pit by a water wheel. The subsoil was most likely reinforced using wooden piles driven with a pile driver. Upon this, a wooden foundation grate composed of oak beams and planks was placed. This grate was fixed with large round stones, which were interconnected by wrought iron bars. Once the foundation was prepared, the masonry of the pillar could…

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Europe Renaissance


More than 18,000 people in 23 countries participated in a survey conducted by the Global Research Society and the Institute for Social Research (Ipsos). The survey found that 51% of the people believe in reincarnation, while 23 percent believe that we only will ‘cease to exist’.

Bobby Duffy, managing director of Ipsos, told Reuters that ‘this study shows that spiritual life is important to people since half of them said they believed in a supreme being’.

‘Also a large proportion of the remaining population is sure that there is a spiritual explanation to either how we got here or what happens after death.’

According to this worldwide survey,how many people believe in reincarnation?The study found that half of the world’s population believes there is a form of afterlife. The belief in reincarnation is highest in Hungary, where 13 percent say ‘we are…

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Ethnic-Cleansing that Halved the Population of Ireland

Europe Renaissance

It is estimated that deliberate starvation, slavery and the expulsion of the Irish, Scottish and English folk too led to a 50 percent loss of the population.Around 100,000 people fled Ireland for Canada in 1847 alone and around 20,000 of those either died during the voyage or during their time spent in quarantine stations.

Not unusually, the remains of three bodies were found washed up on a Canadian beach back in 2011. On the same beach in 2016, the remains of a further 18 bodies were discovered after an archaeological dig.

Canadian scientists have now confirmed that a study of the bones show that these are the remains of Irish famine victims who fled from English occupation across the Atlantic in the mid-1800s.

The initial remains were discovered in 2011 on a beach in Forillon National Park, Quebec. These sad losses were identified as two seven-year-old boys and an 11-year-old…

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Europe Renaissance

Looking at the sculptures, covered with the thinnest marble veil, one ponders: How to sculpt the thinnest, transparent fabric from a block of solid stone? A truly divine gift of brilliant artists and sculptors allows you to convey in stone the tenderness and airiness of the lightest fabric, bends and folds while preserving every feature of the face and body. It is impossible to believe that this is the creation of human hands.

The first sculptures created using this technique appeared in the 17th century. They are made so delicately that some contemporaries cannot even believe that they were made by ordinary, albeit very talented, masters, with ordinary human hands. These are marble sculptures decorated with a veil. The viewer has a complete feeling that the statues are covered with the finest fabric.

The first sculptor who managed to create a marble veil was the Neapolitan master Antonio Corradini, born…

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Roman Emperors Brought to Life

Europe Renaissance

New technology now allows us to reconstruct the faces of historical figures showing us a very close representation of their actual features.

During lockdown for Covid-19 Canadian cinematographer and virtual reality designerDaniel Voshartgot bored and began to recreate the faces of Roman Emperors using a new website called Artbreeder.

According to their website, Artbreeder.com, it was created by Joel Simon from Stochastic Labs in Berkeley, California and their website, stochasticlabs.org states ‘Stochastic Labs convenes the best creative minds in the SF bay area and beyond for conversations about the future of technology, science, entrepreneurship, and the arts’.

Caligula (Daniel Voshart)

Users submit images and they are combined and manipulated by AI Machine Learning. The images can be used as portraits, album covers, landscapes and pretty much anything that can be thought of. Their hair, skin complexion, hair colour, and glasses or pieces of jewellery can be manually added…

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St. Martin’s Day – November 11

Europe Renaissance

Nowadays, in many Western countries the latter half of autumn signals the coming of Halloween on October 31st. Halloween is the last major celebration before Christmas, and already in early October spooky decorations and costumes creep into shops, schools and houses. However, in many European countries, Halloween is a relatively new celebration which has only begun to be widely celebrated in the last few decades, if at all. For countries such as the Netherlands, Germany and Portugal, Martinmas, or Saint Martin’s Day, is the more prominent autumnal celebration.

Saint Martin of Tours was a Roman soldier who was baptised as an adult and became a bishop in a French town. The most notable of his saintly acts was he had cut his cloak in half to share with a beggar during a snowstorm, to save him from the cold as then that night, he dreamt of Jesus, wearing…

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